Preconception: Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Good blood glucose management is important prior to pregnancy to avoid complications in both the mother and the baby. Complications may include spontaneous abortion, congenital malformation and a large birth weight baby. Often, women may not know they are pregnant for the first 1-2 months.

During this time, organs are developing and blood glucose should be at optimal levels. It is recommended to aim for an HbA1c of 7% or less (6.5% or less, if possible) for 3 months prior to pregnancy. If possible, pregnancies should be planned in order to better manage blood glucose levels. 

Folic acid

Folic acid is important for brain and spinal cord development.  Women with diabetes should take 1mg folic acid 3 months prior to pregnancy and continue until at least 3 months into the pregnancy.

Eye exam and medication review

Eye changes may occur during pregnancy, so it is important to have your eyes checked prior to pregnancy. 

Check with your doctor to make sure the medications you are currently taking (e.g., blood pressure or cholesterol lowering medications) are safe in pregnancy. 

Blood glucose targets

Blood glucose targets will be lower in pregnancy, however aiming for 4-7mmol/L before meals and 5-10mmol/L after meals are the targets pre-conception.